A calque is a word or phrase used from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. For example, in English 'apple strudel' stems from the German word 'Apfelstrudel'.


Context-dependent memory

Context-dependent memory is when a given context triggers a specific memory. This is because the memory was initially encoded within the given context.


Language-dependent recall

With bilinguals, language-dependent recall means that the language spoken during the encoding of the event acts as a trigger. This means that depending on the language that is spoken or focused on, different memories or associations will be triggered.



A loanword is a word that is adopted without translation into another language. For example, the French word 'café' or the German word 'Kindergarten' has been adopted into the English language.



A pidgin can be a simplified word or phrase from a multitude of languages. For example, 'chatten' is used in German to refer to the English infinitive 'to chat'. The correct word in German would be 'reden', but the English word 'chat' is adapted to form 'chatten'.



Transcreation is the creative process of changing your cultural perspective to create effective content for a specific culture while maintaining brand guidelines.