What is a calque?

A calque is a word or phrase used from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. For example, in English ‘apple strudel’ stems from the German word ‘Apfelstrudel’.

What is context-dependent memory?

Context-dependent memory is when a given context triggers a specific memory. This is because the memory was initially encoded within the given context.

What is language-dependent recall?

With bilinguals, language-dependent recall means that the language spoken during the encoding of the event acts as a trigger. This means that depending on the language that is spoken or focused on, different memories or associations will be triggered.

What is a loanword?

A loanword is a word that is adopted without translation into another language. For example, the French word ‘café’ or the German word ‘Kindergarten’ has been adopted into the English language.

What is a pidgin?

A pidgin can be a simplified word or phrase from a multitude of languages. For example, ‘chatten’ is used in German to refer to the English infinitive ‘to chat’. The correct word in German would be ‘reden’, but the English word ‘chat’ is adapted to form ‘chatten’.

What is transcreation?

Transcreation is the creative process of changing your cultural perspective to create effective content for a specific culture while maintaining brand guidelines.

What is a top-level domain (TLD)?

A TLD is the last part of the domain name. For example, for this website the .co.uk part of the domain is the TLD.

What is a country code TLD (ccTLD):

A country code TLD (ccTLD) is a country-specific top-level domain (TLD). For example, there is also a www.janinaneumanndesign.de domain name and the ccTLD would be .de as the website is localised for Germany and German-speakers.